How to Become an Agricultural Engineer

Agricultural Engineering: A Journey From Education to Practice

As the world grapples with the challenges of food security, climate change, and sustainable development, the role of agricultural engineers has become increasingly significant. With a unique blend of technological expertise and agricultural knowledge, these professionals are critical to addressing these global issues. This article aims to provide an in-depth overview of the career of an agricultural engineer, highlighting their roles, education requirements, potential career paths, and opportunities for advancement.

What is an Agricultural Engineer?

Agricultural engineering, an amalgamation of engineering principles and agricultural practice, concerns itself with the design, construction, and improvement of farming equipment and machinery. Agricultural engineers apply engineering technology and biological science to agricultural problems. They are tasked with solving challenges related to power supplies, the efficiency of machinery, the use of structures and facilities, pollution and environmental issues, and the storage and processing of agricultural products.

What Does an Agricultural Engineer Do?

Agricultural engineers are essentially problem solvers who apply engineering principles to the broad field of agriculture. The versatility of their role means that their duties can vary significantly based on their specific job and area of expertise. Here’s a more detailed breakdown of some of the roles an agricultural engineer might play:

Design and Development of Farming Equipment: 

A significant part of an agricultural engineer’s job can involve designing, testing, and improving farming equipment and machinery. This may include tractors, ploughs, harvesters, and other implements used in farming. Their goal is to ensure that these tools are efficient, safe, and suited to the specific demands of different agricultural processes. They might also work on the design of automated farming equipment, contributing to the rise of precision agriculture.

Irrigation, Drainage, and Water Management: 

Water is a critical resource in agriculture, and managing it effectively is crucial for productivity and environmental sustainability. Agricultural engineers often design and implement irrigation systems that efficiently distribute water to crops. They may also develop drainage systems to manage water runoff and prevent waterlogging in fields. Furthermore, they play a role in watershed management, focusing on maintaining water quality and addressing issues related to soil erosion.

Infrastructure Planning: 

Agricultural engineers may be involved in the planning and construction of farm buildings, storage facilities, and other agricultural infrastructures. They need to ensure that these structures are functional, efficient, and compliant with safety standards.

Bioprocessing and Biotechnology:

 Some agricultural engineers specialize in developing bio-based products from agricultural crops. They design processes and equipment for the large-scale manufacturing of these products, which include biofuels, food products, pharmaceuticals, and biodegradable plastics.

Environmental Impact and Compliance: 

Agriculture can have significant environmental impacts, and agricultural engineers play a key role in mitigating these effects. They might devise methods for managing agricultural waste, reducing emissions from farming operations, and promoting sustainable farming practices. Moreover, they help farmers and agricultural businesses comply with environmental regulations.

Research and Innovation: 

Agricultural engineers often conduct research to develop new solutions and technologies in agriculture. They might investigate new materials for machinery, innovative farming techniques, alternative energy sources for farming operations, or advanced irrigation systems. Their work contributes to the advancement of agricultural science and the development of more sustainable and efficient farming practices.

This range of roles illustrates the multifaceted nature of agricultural engineering, which intertwines with various aspects of agriculture, from the production stage right through to processing and distribution. Through their varied contributions, agricultural engineers play a crucial part in enhancing the efficiency, sustainability, and overall productivity of the agricultural sector

Agricultural Engineer Salary

The salary of an agricultural engineer can vary widely based on several factors including their level of education, years of experience, geographical location, and the specific industry they work in. As of 2023, the median annual wage for agricultural engineers in the United States is around $80,000. However, this is a median figure and salaries can deviate significantly on either side.

Entry-level agricultural engineers who have recently graduated can expect to earn a lower starting salary, typically around the range of $55,000 to $60,000 per year. As they gain more experience and assume more responsibilities, their earning potential increases. Mid-level agricultural engineers with several years of experience can expect to earn between $70,000 and $90,000 annually.

Senior agricultural engineers who have extensive experience and possibly hold managerial or executive roles can earn well over $100,000 per year. Furthermore, agricultural engineers who have a specialized skill set or work in lucrative industries may command higher salaries. For instance, those working in manufacturing or those involved in advanced biotechnology or renewable energy projects could potentially earn higher incomes.

Additionally, geographical location plays a role in salary variations. Agricultural engineers in states with a significant agricultural sector or higher cost of living may earn more than their counterparts in other states. For example, according to data from Zippia, states like California, Texas, and Iowa offer competitive salaries for agricultural engineers, which are typically higher than the national average.

It’s also worth noting that the total compensation can include more than just the base salary. It may encompass benefits such as health insurance, retirement plans, and paid time off. Some companies may also offer bonuses, profit sharing, or stock options, which can significantly increase the total compensation package.

In conclusion, while the salary of an agricultural engineer can vary based on many factors, the field offers competitive wages and a solid career path for those interested in combining engineering with agriculture.

Agricultural Engineering Job and Job Description

Agricultural engineers can work in a multitude of roles across various sectors. They may find themselves designing new and improved farming equipment that may increase the efficiency and production of crops, or designing and planning agricultural infrastructures like warehouses, water reservoirs, and farming land. Other job roles might include creating solutions to pollution control at large farms or advising on water quality and water pollution control issues. You can find more about the different types of engineering jobs on our website.

Agricultural Engineer Education Requirements

A career in agricultural engineering typically begins with a bachelor’s degree in agricultural engineering. Core subjects often include biology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics, providing the foundational knowledge necessary for this field. Additionally, the curriculum includes specialized courses like soil mechanics, agricultural machinery design, and bioresource engineering, equipping students with the technical skills required for their professional roles.

How to Become an Agricultural Engineer

The journey to becoming an agricultural engineer involves a few key steps:

  1. Compare Agricultural/Biological Engineering Program

When choosing an engineering program, consider factors like accreditation status (preferably ABET-accredited), faculty expertise, lab facilities, and specializations offered. Program accreditation ensures that the curriculum meets industry standards, which is essential for career advancement, especially for those seeking licensure as professional engineers.

  1. Earn a Bachelor’s Degree in Agricultural/Biological Engineering

This typically involves four years of study. The curriculum generally includes a mix of theory and practical learning, including laboratory and field work. Graduates develop skills in problem-solving, critical thinking, project management, and teamwork, which are all essential in the professional world.

  1. Consider Becoming a Professional Engineer (PE)

Becoming a PE enhances career prospects and credibility. To become a PE, you typically need to earn a degree from an ABET-accredited engineering program, pass the Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) exam, gain relevant work experience, and achieve a passing score on the Professional Engineering (PE) exam.

  1. Consider Pursuing an Advanced Degree:

Master’s and doctoral programs offer opportunities for further specialization and research. A master’s degree in agricultural engineering might lead to leadership roles, while a doctoral degree is often required for academic and high-level research positions.


To become an agricultural engineer, one typically needs at least a bachelor’s degree in engineering. Obtaining a license as a Professional Engineer (PE) can significantly enhance career opportunities and credibility. As the field is multidisciplinary, agricultural engineers often possess a range of skills, including a strong understanding of biological science, environmental science, mechanical engineering, and civil engineering principles.

Agricultural Engineer Degree

The journey to becoming an agricultural engineer begins with a Bachelor’s degree in agricultural or biological engineering. The program curriculum typically includes a combination of science and engineering principles, focusing on subjects like biochemistry, physics, mechanics, and mathematics, along with specialized courses in soil science, crop science, and environmental science.

Skills & Specializations

Agricultural engineers need a mix of hard and soft skills. Hard skills include a strong grasp of science and mathematics, problem-solving abilities, and proficiency in using computer-aided design (CAD) software. On the soft skill front, communication, project management, and teamwork are crucial.

In terms of specializations, some agricultural engineers might focus on power systems and machinery design, others on agricultural structures and environmental science, or on bioprocess technology. The choice of specialization depends largely on one’s interests and career goals.

What’s a Day Like as an Agricultural Engineer?

A day in the life of an agricultural engineer can vary significantly based on their specialization and the nature of their work. For instance, an engineer working on water systems might spend their day designing and testing irrigation systems, while one focused on agricultural machinery might be engaged in designing and improving farming equipment. Despite these differences, a common thread is problem-solving – finding ways to improve efficiency and sustainability in agricultural production and processing.

Agricultural Engineer Work Environments

The work environment of an agricultural engineer can be quite diverse. Some might work in comfortable office settings, others might spend time on farms and agricultural production facilities, while some could be in laboratories conducting experiments.

Typical Day

The daily life of an agricultural engineer is highly dependent on their specific role and the type of organization they work for. However, across the profession, there are certain common activities and responsibilities that most agricultural engineers will engage in.

Design and Problem Solving: 

Much of an agricultural engineer’s time is spent on designing systems, machinery, or structures that are relevant to agricultural needs. This involves a lot of problem-solving – they might be tasked with creating a more efficient irrigation system, for example, or developing machinery that can increase crop yield. This process often involves using computer-aided design (CAD) software and involves a good deal of creativity and technical know-how.

Research and Development: 

Agricultural engineers spend a substantial part of their day conducting research and development. This could involve everything from testing soil samples in a laboratory setting, conducting field trials of new machinery, or studying the latest research on biofuels. They might also engage in feasibility studies for new projects or potential improvements to existing systems.

Collaboration and Communication: 

Regardless of their specific roles, agricultural engineers will often find themselves working as part of a team. They might work with other engineers, agricultural scientists, farmers, and other stakeholders. Clear and efficient communication is essential, whether that’s coordinating with a project team, discussing needs with a client, or presenting findings to stakeholders.

Site Visits: 

Depending on the nature of their job, agricultural engineers may also spend part of their day visiting farm sites, manufacturing facilities, or project sites. They may need to inspect the operation of equipment, assess the viability of land for certain agricultural uses, or oversee the implementation of a new system or process.

Documentation and Reporting: 

Agricultural engineers are also responsible for documenting their work. This might involve creating detailed design plans, writing project proposals, drafting budgets, or preparing reports on research findings or project outcomes.

Continuing Education: 

Given the fast-paced evolution of technology and best practices in agriculture and engineering, professionals in this field often dedicate time to keeping their knowledge and skills up-to-date. This can involve reading industry journals, attending webinars or conferences, or undergoing further training.

These tasks represent the varied and dynamic nature of an agricultural engineer’s typical day. The balance between these activities can vary greatly depending on one’s job role, level of seniority, and the specific industry or sector they work in. Nonetheless, a career in agricultural engineering promises a stimulating mix of technical, scientific, and creative challenges, with each day bringing new opportunities to make a meaningful impact on the world of agriculture.

Tips for Earning an Agricultural Engineering Degree

  1. What to Look for in a Program: Key factors to consider include the accreditation status of the program, the expertise of faculty, the availability of modern laboratories and equipment, and the potential for internships or practical experiences.
  2. ABET Accreditation: This signifies that the program meets the high standards set by the engineering industry. ABET-accredited programs are often a prerequisite for obtaining a professional engineering license.
  3. Associations: Joining professional associations can offer benefits like networking opportunities, access to industry news and resources, and chances to attend conferences and seminars.

Popular States for Agricultural Engineers

According to Zippia, the states with the highest employment for agricultural engineers are California, Texas, and Iowa. They offer a higher number of job opportunities along with competitive salaries.

Career Advancement Opportunities

As an agricultural engineer gains experience and deepens their expertise, several avenues for career advancement open up. While the specific path can depend on individual career goals and the nature of their work, here are some common ways that agricultural engineers can progress in their careers:

Advanced Roles within Engineering: After gaining a certain amount of work experience, an agricultural engineer might progress to a senior engineering role or a project management position. These roles typically involve greater responsibilities and more complex projects, and hence, command higher salaries. They might oversee the design and implementation of engineering projects, coordinate teams of engineers, or manage relationships with clients or stakeholders.

Specialization: Specializing in a specific area of agricultural engineering can also enhance career prospects. For instance, one might choose to focus on water resource engineering, machinery automation, or bioprocessing. With deep knowledge in a niche area, engineers can position themselves as experts, opening up opportunities for more specialized and advanced roles.

Leadership and Managerial Roles: With substantial experience and a demonstrated ability to lead, agricultural engineers can move into leadership or managerial roles. This might involve overseeing the engineering department within an organization, directing the organization’s engineering strategy, or leading major engineering projects. In some cases, engineers might move into general management roles, where they oversee broader aspects of the organization’s operations.

Consulting: Experienced agricultural engineers might choose to work as consultants, providing expert advice to organizations, farmers, or government bodies. This can be an appealing path for those who enjoy problem-solving, variety in their work, and the opportunity to work on a project-by-project basis. It also allows engineers to leverage their expertise to make a broader impact.

Academia and Research: For those with a passion for research and education, a career in academia could be an attractive option. This could involve conducting research, teaching the next generation of agricultural engineers, or contributing to the development of the field through scholarly publications. This path typically requires advanced degrees, such as a master’s or doctorate.

Entrepreneurship: With sufficient experience and an innovative mindset, agricultural engineers might decide to start their own businesses. They could develop new agricultural technologies, offer engineering services, or create solutions to meet unique agricultural challenges.

Continued Education: Pursuing advanced degrees, such as a master’s degree in agricultural engineering, can significantly enhance career advancement opportunities. Such programs allow engineers to delve deeper into specific areas of interest, gain advanced research skills, and potentially move into roles with more responsibility and higher pay.

In summary, agricultural engineering offers diverse paths for career progression. Whether an engineer is drawn to advanced technical work, leadership roles, research, or entrepreneurship, there are plentiful opportunities to advance and make a significant impact in this field.

Is an Agricultural Engineer Career Right For You?

A career in agricultural engineering is rewarding, challenging, and full of opportunities to make a significant impact. If you have a passion for engineering and biology, and a desire to contribute to sustainable agriculture and food security, this could be the ideal career for you. As the world continues to recognize the importance of sustainable development and food production, the need for agricultural engineers is only likely to grow. Your bachelor’s degree in engineering could be the first step on an impactful and fulfilling career journey.

With a growing recognition of the role that agriculture plays in some of the world’s most pressing challenges, such as climate change and population growth, agricultural engineers will undoubtedly play an integral role in shaping the future of our planet. If you’re interested in leveraging your skills to contribute to these efforts, a career in agricultural engineering could be an excellent choice.

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